Organizations typically use groups to plan and implement change, and groups typically need some form of facilitation. At the heart of improving group effectiveness lies the ability of group members to reflect on what they are doing, to create the conditions necessary to achieve their goals. Groups find it difficult to openly examine behavior on their own; they often need the help of a facilitator.
The Skilled Facilitator (2nd edition) by Roger Schwarz Jossey-Bass, 2002